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A Companion to the History of Science
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A Companion to the History of Science
von: Bernard Lightman
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
ISBN: 9781118620748
624 Seiten, Download: 10594 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: A (einfacher Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  A Companion to the History of Science 3  
  Contents 7  
  About the Editor 10  
  About the Contributors 11  
  Acknowledgements 18  
  Introduction 19  
     Endnote 24  
     References 24  
  1 Historiography of the History of Science 25  
     Constructing Scientific Knowledge, Socially 26  
     Doing Scientific Things with Scientific Things: Practice and Materiality 28  
     Moving Knowledge Around: Communication and Circulation 30  
     Scaling History of Science 34  
     Endnote 35  
     References 35  
  PART I Roles 41  
     2 Learned Man and Woman in Antiquity and the Middle Ages 43  
        Greek Mathematicians in the Hellenic Cities 45  
        Families of Scholars in Persian and Hellenistic Uruk 46  
        Scholars as Clients in Warring States to Early Han China 47  
        A Roman Physician and a Roman Mathematician 48  
        Contexts of Scholarship in Sanskrit Sciences 49  
        Translators and Other Scholars in Abbasid Baghdad 50  
        Mandarins and Calendar Reform 51  
        Salaried Scholars in Damascus 51  
        Scholarly Women in the Ancient and Medieval Periods 53  
        Conclusion 54  
        References 54  
     3 Go-Betweens, Travelers, and Cultural Translators 57  
        Connecting Cultures in Recent Historiography 58  
        Travel and Translation 61  
        Brokering in the Cultural and Social Sciences 61  
        Go-Betweens Enter Science Studies 63  
        An Example 64  
        Whither Go-Betweens Today? 69  
        Endnote 70  
        References 71  
     4 The Alchemist 76  
        Endnotes 85  
        References 86  
     5 The Natural Philosopher 89  
        The Natural Philosopher in the University 89  
        Experimenters 92  
        Ideal Types and Natural Philosophers 92  
        Role: Public or Private? 93  
        Societies and Experiment 95  
        Natural Philosophy and Natural History 98  
        Endnote 99  
        References 99  
     6 The Natural Historian 102  
        The Early Modern Naturalist 104  
        The Enlightenment Naturalist 106  
        The Nineteenth-Century Naturalist 107  
        The Modern Naturalist 109  
        References 111  
     7 Invisible Technicians, Instrument-makers and Artisans 115  
        Instrumental Knowledge 117  
        Behind the Scenes 120  
        Assembly-line Knowledge 124  
        Conclusions 126  
        References 127  
     8 Scientific Illustrators 129  
        Debates between Darwin and Illustrators of his Books 129  
        Early Stages 131  
        The Illustrator as an Interpreter of Nature 131  
        The System of Conventions in the Illustrators Profession 133  
        The Illustrator and the Economy of Scientific Books 134  
        The Industry of Illustrated Scientific Books 136  
        Women Illustrators 138  
        Construction of a Visual Scientific Culture 139  
        The Photography Revolution 140  
        Endnotes 142  
        References 142  
     9 The Human Experimental Subject 144  
        Prisoners 145  
        Slaves 147  
        Patients 148  
        Children 152  
        Self-experiment 154  
        Conclusion 155  
        References 155  
     10 Amateurs 157  
        Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as Foil 157  
        Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as Proto-Professional 158  
        Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as the Professionals Inverse 160  
        Re-mapping the Amateur Sphere: Historiographic Challenges to the Standard Narrative 160  
           Challenges Posed by the History of Women in Science 161  
           Challenges Posed by the History of Natural History 163  
           Challenges Posed by the New Cultural History 163  
        Appropriating Scientific Authority from within Amateur Realms: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Ecologies of Knowledge 164  
        History of Sciences Amateurs: The Question of Where the Center Lies 167  
        References 168  
     11 The Man of Science 171  
        References 179  
     12 The Professional Scientist 182  
        A Middling Sort of Science 184  
        Supporting and Subverting their Sponsors 186  
        Professionals Unbound 188  
        End of an Epoch? 190  
        References 191  
  PART II Places and Spaces 197  
     13 The Medieval University 199  
        Pre-university Education 200  
        Universities and Scholastic Culture 201  
        New Directions 207  
        Endnote 210  
        References 210  
     14 The Observatory 214  
        Early Observatories 214  
        China 215  
        The Islamic World 215  
        Tycho Brahe 217  
        The Seventeenth Century 217  
        The Eighteenth Century 219  
        Giant Reflectors 220  
        The First Half of the Nineteenth Century 220  
        Magnetism 221  
        The Observatory as Laboratory 222  
        The Rise of American Observatories 223  
        Space Observatories 225  
        Endnote 225  
        References 225  
     15 The Court 228  
        Engineering, Instruments, and Practical Mathematics 229  
        Cosmology and Philosophical Speculation 231  
        “New Things” and the Medici 232  
        Collections, Wonder, and the Order of Nature 233  
        Curiosities and Visual Knowledge 235  
        Gender, “Human Empire,” and Global Knowledge 236  
        Medicine, Pharmacy, and Society 238  
        References 239  
     16 Academies and Societies 242  
        New Philosophies and New Forums 243  
        Enlightened Sociability and the Growth of Civil Society 245  
        High and Low Science 247  
        Conclusion 252  
        Endnote 253  
        References 253  
     17 Museums and Botanical Gardens 256  
        Renaissance and Early Modern Collections 256  
        Museums, Gardens, and the Modern State 259  
        Science, Education, and Popular Culture 262  
        Conclusion: the hybrid spaces of popular science 266  
        References 268  
     18 Domestic Space 270  
        Situating the Domestic Production of Scientific Knowledge 270  
        Gender and Domestic Productions 271  
        Domesticity, Social Class, and Professionalization 273  
        Domesticity by Design 276  
        Domestication through Popularization 277  
        Future Research 280  
        References 280  
     19 Commercial Science 286  
        Science in Twentieth-Century Corporate Laboratories 287  
        Science in Nineteenth-Century Capitalist Enterprises 290  
        Conclusion 295  
        Endnotes 296  
        References 297  
     20 The Field 300  
        The Field as Category and Place 301  
        Many Fields 304  
        Places and Practices 306  
        Practitioners 307  
        Conclusion 308  
        References 308  
     21 The Laboratory 314  
        A Brief History of the Laboratory 314  
        Lab Studies as a Field: Past, Present, and Future 320  
        The Laboratory at the Intersection: Practice, Pedagogy, and Material Culture 321  
        Endnotes 323  
        References 324  
     22 Modern School and University 328  
        Early Modern Universities and Schools 329  
        The Enlightenment and Compulsory School Education 332  
        The Research University Revolution 334  
        University Expansion and Technoscientific Innovation 337  
        Endnote 343  
        References 343  
  PART III Communication 347  
     23 Manuscripts 349  
        Transmission of Texts 349  
        Textual Criticism 353  
        Visual Images 355  
        Tradition and Innovation 357  
        Endnotes 360  
        References 360  
     24 The Printing Press 362  
        De-centering Gutenberg from the Print Revolution 362  
        From Book to Text and Back Again 365  
        Locating the Scientific Book 366  
        Facsimiles and Digitization 370  
        The World of Print 371  
        Endnotes 372  
        References 373  
     25 Correspondence Networks 376  
        The Republic of Letters, Sixteenth–Eighteenth Centuries 378  
        Exchanging Information, Opinions, and Objects 380  
        Scientific Correspondence in the Nineteenth Century 381  
        Europe and the Wider World 382  
        The Universal Postal Union and Beyond 384  
        Corpora of Correspondence, Archival and Published 385  
        Digital Humanities and the Future of Research on Correspondence Networks 385  
        References 386  
     26 Translations 390  
        The First Turn: Modern Histories of “Arabic Science” in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 390  
        The Second Turn: Antique to Early Modern Encounters with Translation in East Asia and Beyond 397  
        Concluding Remarks 401  
        References 401  
     27 Journals and Periodicals 405  
        The Seventeenth Century 406  
        The Eighteenth Century 406  
        The Nineteenth Century 407  
        The Twentieth Century 409  
        Scientific Authorship 411  
        Editors and Reviewing Processes 412  
        Distribution and Readership 413  
        Conclusions 414  
        Endnote 415  
        References 415  
     28 Textbooks 418  
        Expectations 419  
        Past Tenses 420  
        Demarcation 421  
        Disciplines 423  
        Futures 426  
        Endnote 428  
        References 428  
     29 Lectures 432  
        Visualizing Science 434  
        Voicing Science 436  
        Body Language 437  
        Auditors and Auditoriums 439  
        Legacies 442  
        Endnote 443  
        References 443  
     30 Film, Radio, and Television 446  
        Film: Science on the Silver Screen 446  
        Radio: Broadcasting Science over the Airwaves 450  
        Television: Science in Every Living Room 453  
        References 458  
  PART IV Tools of Science 461  
     31 Timing Devices 463  
        Endnotes 473  
        References 474  
     32 Weights and Measures 477  
        Historiography on Weights and Measures 477  
        Measurement: Politics and Economy 478  
        Decimal Metric System 480  
        Globalization of the Metric System 482  
        Social Forces of Metrication 482  
        The Metric System and Its Adversaries 484  
        Moral Economy of Measurement and Opposition to Metrological Reform 486  
        Concluding Remark 487  
        Endnote 487  
        References 487  
     33 Calculating Devices and Computers 490  
        Calculation “By Hand” 491  
        Analog Computing 493  
        Electronic Computing, Numerical Analysis, and Simulation 494  
        Beyond Artillery, Bombs, and Particles 495  
        Big Data Avant Big Data 497  
        Data Infrastructures 498  
        The Social Organization of Expertise 499  
        Hubris and Materiality 500  
        Endnotes 501  
        References 502  
     34 Specimens and Collections 506  
        Defending Collections 506  
        Making Collections Scientific 507  
        Modernizing Collections in the Twentieth Century 510  
        Conclusions 513  
        Guide to Further Readings 514  
        References 515  
     35 Recording Devices 518  
        Spontaneous Reproduction 519  
        Expanding and Replacing 520  
        In Philosophy of Science 521  
        The Disappearing Device 522  
        From Media Studies to Poststructuralism 523  
        Desires 524  
        Recording and Quantification 525  
        Servant instruments 525  
        The Personal Equation 526  
        The Modern Subject and the Discipline of Psychology 527  
        Art and Hand-drawings 527  
        Altered Distances 529  
        Recorded History 529  
        References 530  
     36 Microscopes 533  
        Origins 533  
        Hooke and After 535  
        The Development of the Instrument Trade 537  
        The Microscope in the Nineteenth Century 541  
        Modern Microscopy 545  
        References 546  
     37 Telescopes 548  
        The Early Refractor 549  
        The Beginning of the Reflector 552  
        Telescopes in Observatories 553  
        New Telescopes and Audiences in the Eighteenth Century 555  
        The Large Reflector: William Herschel and His Successors 556  
        The Essential Tool of Modern Astronomy 558  
        References 560  
     38 Prisms, Spectroscopes, Spectrographs, and Gratings 561  
        The Prism—From a Toy to a Tool 561  
        Dark Lines in the Solar Spectrum: Wollaston and Fraunhofer 562  
        The Emergence of Spectrum Analysis: Swan, Bunsen, and Kirchhoff 564  
        Multifacetted Applications of Spectroscopy 566  
        Solar Physics and Chemistry: The Origins of Astrophysics 567  
        Diffraction Gratings and Precision Spectroscopy 570  
        Endnotes 572  
        References 573  
     39 Diagrams 575  
        Theoretical Approaches 575  
        Diagrams in the History of Science 577  
        Paper Tools 579  
        Maps 580  
        Tables 581  
        Graphs 583  
        Conclusion 585  
        Endnotes 585  
        References 586  
     40 Three-Dimensional Models 590  
        Introduction 590  
        Models in Research 591  
        Models as Representations 594  
        Models and their Audiences 596  
        Models Mass-produced for Teaching 597  
        Modeling Nature 599  
        Guide to Further Reading and Further Viewing 600  
        Endnotes 601  
        References 602  
  Index 605  
  EULA 620  


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